Urea

Urea is a colorless or white crystalline powder and is used as a humectant in cosmetics and personal care products. Urea is found in the skin’s epidermis and it is an active part of the body’s natural moisturizing factor (NMF) which functions to keep skin hydrated, protected and working efficiently.
It is an excellent hydrophilic molecule (water-loving) and holds on to water molecules in the epidermis and dermis, keeping the skin moist. When used in high concentrations, urea can be used an alternative to acid peels. It helps with the exfoliation process and enhances skin penetration for other active ingredients in cosmetic products.

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Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7

Palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 is a type of synthetic peptide composed of many amino acids to reduce skin inflammation and the skin damage. This peptide is believed to stimulate the regeneration of collagen in the dermis and improve the epidermal barrier. It suppresses the excess production of chemical messengers known as interleukins that can trigger an inflammatory response in the skin. The application of palmitoyl tetrapeptide-7 will reduce inflammation and damages caused by environmental stresses like UV rays, pollution and stress.

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Evening Primrose Oil

In 17th century Europe, evening primrose oil was referred to as “king’s cure-all” because it was used for treating numerous disorders such as sore throats, bruises, digestive problems and hemorrhoids. Evening primrose oil contains phenylalanine – a pain-relieving compound – and is increasingly being used to treat chronic headaches, hormonal imbalance and many other health disorders. Topical application of evening primrose oil that is rich in EFAs can help to enhance the epidermal barrier, restore hydration of the skin and reduce the appearance of wrinkles and lines.

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Hydroxysuccinimide

Hydroxysuccinimide is an ester that helps to stimulate the clearance of blood cell pigments responsible for the dark coloration and inflammation under the eyes. It acts as a chelating agent that binds with the iron (one of the compounds present in the accumulation). It naturally solubilizes the iron, thereby reducing the appearance of dark circles. A study was conducted on 22 female volunteers who were given a gel containing 2% N-hydroxysuccinimide to apply for 56 days to the contour of one eye against a placebo on the other eye. The results showed that application of the gel had decreased the red and blue colors of dark circles by 19%.

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Ergothioneine

Ergothioneine protects the skin from oxidation and DNA damage. It targets free radicals, particularly those caused by UV-induced skin damage. Antioxidants are substances that fight free radicals which are known to damage DNA and cause skin cell death. Free radicals contribute to the premature aging, cancer and heart diseases. Antioxidants like ergothioneine neutralize free radicals and potentially reduce and even prevent sun damage.

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Betaine Salicylate

Betaine salicylate is a keratolytic beta hydroxy acid (BHA) which is gentle on the skin and is known to improve skin tone and texture. It is also noted for its keratolytic-like effect in removing warts, calluses and other lesions in which the epidermis produces excess skin. This helps to improve acne symptoms and reduce blackheads by preventing the formation of clogged pores and encouraging the growth of new skin.

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Adenosine

Adenosine is a nucleoside that is most commonly associated with the body’s energy-transferring processes. It is a yeast-derived ingredient that functions as an anti-aging agent. It is present naturally in the body’s adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an essential biological and chemical signaling molecule. When applied topically, adenosine showed significant effectiveness in reducing the visible signs of aging and improving skin smoothness. Adenosine is found in moisturizing skincare products such as creams or serums.

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Wakame Extract

Wakame extract is obtained from the seaweed of Undaria pinnatifida. Wakame Extract’s polysaccharides, proteins, vitamins, antioxidants and minerals content make it a desirable ingredient. It has high levels of calcium (15x more than milk), iron, potassium and sodium. The beauty care industry uses it for moisturizing, soothing and conditioning, texturing skin care, post-lifting, eye care, SPA, sun care and hair masks. The recommended concentration is from 1 to 5%.

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