Pine Bark Extract

Studies on pine bark extract show that it can help to boost collagen production and maintain skin youth and elasticity by increasing hyaluronic acid levels in the body. Hyaluronic acid can retain huge amounts of moisture – 1,000 times its weight in water – making it an important nutrient for skin hydration. Pine bark extract also contains flavonols and bioflavonoids, phytochemicals that have been shown to display anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cancer and neuroprotective activities.

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Palmitic Acid

According to a Korean study published in a 2010 edition of the “Journal of Medicinal Food,” palmitic acid does possess antioxidant properties. The antioxidants help prevent free radical damage to maintain youthful radiant skin. Two main functions of palmitic acid are to act as an emulsifier and surfactant. The low surface tension of palmitic acid allows water to combine with the oil and dirt molecules and wash them away.

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Olive Leaf

Research has shown that olive leaf extract’s high levels of antioxidants help to protect the skin against harmful UV exposure. According to 2010 study in Phytotherapy Research, consuming an ingestible containing the extract twice daily for two weeks reduced the thickening of the skin caused by prolonged exposure to the sun. Oleuropein also inhibits melanin production and suppresses the enzyme that degrades protein in the skin such as collagen and elastin.

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Niacinamide

Niacinamide belongs to the vitamin B family and is also known as vitamin B3. It was initially used to prevent pellegra, an infectious disease with severe cutaneous lesions and was originally named vitamin PP for pellegra-preventive. During the 1970s, various clinical trials highlighted the good skin penetration of niacinamide.

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Mulberry Extract

Mulberry root extract comes from the white mulberry tree that is native to China but is now cultivated in Europe, Japan, Australia and North America. It has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine and was also popular with the ancient Greeks as the fruit was dedicated to Minerva, the goddess of wisdom. White mulberry is also widely grown for its leaves and color to feed silkworms for commercial production of silk.

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Melaleuca Alternifolia (Tea Tree) Leaf Extract

Melaleuca alternifolia, commonly known as tea tree oil, is highly regarded as an essential oil and is used in skincare for its antibacterial and antimicrobial properties. It is a popular ingredient in cosmetic products including face wash, shampoos, skin and nail creams, and massage oils.  A study conducted by the Department of Dermatology at Australia’s Royal Prince Alfred Hospital compared the effectiveness of tea tree oil to benzoyl peroxide (a common acne medication) and found that 5% of both substances had the same significant effect in reducing the patients’ acne.

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Lupin Seed Extract

Lupin seed extract contains penta- and hexapeptides that work as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) inhibitor in our body. The matrix MMPs are a family of peptidase enzymes responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix components such as collagen, gelatin, fibronectin, laminin and proteoglycan. The penta- and hexa- peptides from the lupin seed prevent MMP activity and reduce the breakdown of collagen and elastin.

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Lactic Acid

Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) naturally present in milk, fruit, vegetables and plants. It is used in personal care products for anti-aging and chemical peels. In higher concentrations between 5 and 12%, lactic acid exfoliates the skin’s surface by gently breaking down the ‘glue’ between dead epidermal cells and the pilosebaceous unit. In lower percentages, lactic acid has a moisturizing effect as it reduces transepidermal water loss by repairing the weak lipid skin barrier.

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L-Cysteine

L-cysteine helps the skin to defend against sun damage. Together with vitamin C, it helps skin cells to produce the enzymes that protect the p53 gene. This gene is responsible for triggering a series of actions that cause a potentially cancerous cell to undergo a process called apoptosis (death). L-cysteine is also clinically proven to enhance hydroxytyrosol’s inhibitory melanin production effect.

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Kaolin

According to dermatologists, acne lesions are caused by hormonal imbalance and inflammation. Hormonal imbalance causes excess production of sebum, which then clogs skin pores and dead cells. P.acnes bacteria feed on the dead cells, worsening the acne condition. Kaolin clay mask purges dead cells and removes excess oil from the skin.

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